Friday , May 7 2021

Stone tools prove that humans were in 2.4 million years ago in North Africa

When did the early humans reach the first Mediterranean area? Archaeological evidence, published online by Journal Science (as the first publication), shows their presence in North Africa at least 2.4 million years ago.

This is about 600,000 years before the previous thought.

Results from Anne Boucher site in northeast Algeria provide new information on the time window, whose initial representative Homo Genus

This discovery is a result of excavation and intimate investigation under the umbrella of the Ihen Project since 1992.

The location of Ain Bouquet and other prehistoric sites On the right: Zoom around the city of El Yulma. Maps: Google Map

El Yulma is situated north of the city, the area was known to provide 1.8 million years ago (mythological stories and al-Kharba sites, see map above) stone tools and cut-marked bones, which are the oldest events so far in North Africa.

In 2006 and 2009, new artifacts were found in a few hundred meters of Ain Boucher from other sites. They were distributed in the two layers below the earlier archaeological findings, which indicate an old human presence in this field.

Finds archaeologists

Low (archaeological abbey-LW) and upper (AB-up) archaeological level excavations achieve more than 250 stone tools and about 600 fossil fossils.

A wide range of animals were identified, including elephants, horses, ranos, hippo, wild antelopes, pigs, haynas and crocodiles. These animals are currently habituated to the nearby permanent watershed Savana, which suggests similar conditions in the past.

The discovery of a stone tool involves a cutting tool and cutting-edge cutting tools that are used to process the animal body. These tools are composed of limestone and flint that were collected around the ancient stream bed.

They are the characteristics of the Oldwood Stone Tool technology known from East African sites and it dates from 2.6 million to 1.9 million years ago. But there are some subtle changes in the search of i-bouture, especially with the presence of highly specialized tools in a circular shape, whose work remains unknown.

Two examples of stone tools from Ein Boucher. Photo: Mohammed Sahnaui

Fossil bones show some specific signs that can not be natural roots, but as a result of deliberate activity.

Two types are known. The first sharp-edged pieces were cut-offs, in which skinning, interpreting and deflating activities were suggested (pictured below). The second includes the percussion signs made by Hamster, which suggests a mystery extrapolation.

These are used by the early hamins of animal meat and myelines. This is most often compatible with other studies of contemporary East African sites.

A small Bodice bone with a stone tool cuttings. Photo: Isabel Casser

Dating on the site was very challenging, but the AB-up related positions (at the Oldwei event) and AB-LW (few meters) Obtained 1.9 million and below 2.4 million years old respectively).


This new finding improves our understanding of the time and expansion of Oldwon stone tool technology across Africa and beyond the continent.

After nearly 600,000 years ago, the first of the OldWon tools in North Africa, the age differences with the oldest East African evidence has suddenly become relatively small.

This suggests at least a little faster (or faster than previously thought), from East Africa to expansion of this technology, although in many parts of East and North Africa it is possible to have many native conditions of stone tool production.

As a result, the first settlement of the southern margin of the Mediterranean region is now much older than their northern counterparts.

The oldest evidence of southern Europe is not more than 14 million years ago (Spain is not more than Atapuarca and Ores sites in Spain), while the remnants of Hamin found at Dementian in Georgia at 1.8 million years ago were at the European Gate.


Since no Haminin fossils were found in Ain Boucher, we can only guess about the potential of these oldwon stone tools.

Hummin fossils record is very weak in North Africa, and there are no fossilized reports in the age group of Ain Bauautite.

The oldest remnants found in Algeria date 700,000 years ago. They were found in Tigninif (previously known as Ternife, the top map). If their attribution has changed over time (at the beginning Athlettrops morytnikis And nowadays Homo erectus Or initial Homo heidelbergensis Based on the authors), these fossils are very small compared to Aain Boucher's discovery to support any kind of connection between sites.

In connection with Oldwood stone tools, all the early Hermione remains of the Mediterranean region are significantly smaller than at least 1 million years of Ein Boucher. The oldest western European evidence of partial association, such as Separate Neighborhood Teeth from southern Spain of Spanish Spain, Atapuarca Ciampa del Elegante, Spain and Barcelona Leone, is 1.2 million and 1.4 million years respectively respectively.

As a result, despite the geographical distance from North Africa, the best candidates are likely to be found in East Africa. Some hummins are mostly contemporary with Ein bouted (comprehensive summary can be found here), in which various members of astropticines and genus Homo like Homo Habilis, Homo Rudolfinsis Or indeterminate initial Homo Ethiopian Lady-Guilty

He says, we can not deny the possibility that stone tools on Ain Bouquet comes from other species of haminin that are related to genes or not Homo, It's not found yet

We hope that future excavations in its booze will give us the opportunity to identify these stone makers.Conversation

Mathieu Duval ARC Future Fellow, Griffith University and Mohammed Sahnawi are the Archologues and E. Professor O. National Center for Research on Human Evolution (SENIH), Bergos, National Center for Research on Human Evolution (SENIH)

This article has been republished from a conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read Original article

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