Marilyn Maroison and Christina Larson, The Associated Press
Sunday Published, December 2, 2018 1:37 pm EST
Hong Kong – In the early years, a little known Chinese researcher emerged in a special meeting in Berkeley, California, where scientists and policymakers were discussing a technology that shook the area in its area – an emerging tool for "editing" jeans, a blueprint for life. NA strings.
The young scientist, Hey Gianqi, sees the power of this tool, which is called the CRISPR, not only the genes, but also transforms its own career.
In his visits to the United States, he attended the University of California, Berkeley and Dr. Stanford University. Stringford ethicist Dr. Jennifer Dawde of Matthew Portus Big thinkers such as William Herbalbut, such as the PRISPR, sought the pioneers.
Last week, those striking researchers saw that they hijacked the international conference because they helped organize with astonishing claims: He said that despite the clear scientific consensus, he helped create the world's first genetically educated children, in the future Not tried at this point to generations that can give genetic mutation.
US National Institute of Health Director Francis Collins called his experiment "a major type of mishap" – "A scientist who apparently believed that he was a hero. In fact, he crossed every line, scientific and moral."
But nobody has stopped it. How can that be?
To be fair, scientists say that DNA There is no specific way to stop any intent on the monkey, even if any laws or standards have been transferred. CRRSP is cheap and easy to use – so scientists have started to worry about the same way that technology was discovered that something like this would happen.
And researchers have a long history of science and medicine that experiments start premature experiments that met up with restlessness or horror – some of which are now a common way of in-vitro fertilization.
Gene-Editing For Fertility Purposes Effectively In The US And most are prohibited in Europe. In China, Ministerial guideline prohibits fetal research that "violates moral or ethical principles."
It turns out that he was not exactly tight about his goals. He pursued international experts at Stanford and Rice University, where he worked for a graduate study, and during the experiment, and had to seek advice from another place.
Should scientists be aware of their plans? Can they disappoint him?
Answers are not clear.
Collins said, "It's not in the range of legal liability, but it moves in moral responsibility." He does not speak "do not take the responsibility of scientific".
ChinaThe National Commission of Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences and their own university have said that they were in the dark and have condemned them since then.
But three Stanford scientists – Hurlandt, Portus and his former fellowship counsel, Stephen Quack – have had extensive contacts with them for the last few years. He and other scientists knew that he was very suspicious that he was trying to make genetically educated children.
Some believers did not believe that they would follow; Others raised concerns that they never cared about.
Stanford did not respond to the request for interview.
Quack, a bioengineering professor, was the first to know about his ambition. Quaker said that whenever his alumni were in the city he had met with them for years, and he convinced his interest to try to make a fetus resistant to AIDS virus for a live birth a few years ago.
Quaker said that he only gave general advice and encouraged them to talk to mainstream scientists, in which to select the circumstances to meet the highest ethics standards and to select the probabilities of publishing its results in a peer-reviewed journal.
"My advice was very broad," Quack said.
Herbalbut thinks that he first met in early 2017, when he and CRRSPR co-inventor Dodna held the first meeting in three meetings with leading scientists and policymakers to conduct a technical discussion.
"Somehow, it ended in our meeting," Herbalbet said.
Since then, he returned to Stanford several times, and Hernbutt said he had spent "many hours" in which he talked about conditions that might be appropriate for gene editing.
Four or five weeks ago, Herbert said that he had come to see him again and discussed fetal acquisitions on fetal acquisition to stop HIV. Herbalbet said that she suspects that she tried to plant a revised fetus in a woman's womb.
"I advised them," he said. "I did not give the green light to her work, and I challenged it. I was not approved by what I was doing."
Portus said that he knew that he was talking to Herbut and Harbatt had disappointed Chinese scientist. In February, he asked to meet Portus and told him that he got approval from a hospital morality board to proceed.
"I think he expected me to be more acceptable, and I was very negative," said Portus. "I was angry with her anger, I was angry at her recklessness."
Portus said that he "urged to talk to your senior Chinese colleagues."
After that meeting, "I did not hear from him and assume he would not go forward," said Portus. "In the previous observation, I could have been able to cry and cry."
In an article article about genes-edited twins, who planned to submit to the journals, Berkeley thanked the biophysist Mark Davit for "editing the manuscript". Davit said that he tried to break them and controversy that he had acquired the paper. He said that he saw the paper, but the response he gave was "pretty normal".
He claimed that, including his work, has resulted in second pregnancy, can not be independently confirmed and his work has not been released.
Conversely, another US. The scientist said he had not only promoted but played a major role in the project.
Rice University's bioengineering professor Michael Deem and Hector's doctoral degree consultant, he said that he has worked with them since the scientific return. China Around 2012, and they sit on the advisory board and have a "small stake" in their two genetic companies in Shenzhen. The research team had used previous experiments on animals, saying that Demy had defended his actions.
"We have many generations of animals that have been genetically edited and produce potential offspring," and many researches on unhealthy effects on other genes, Dim said. He also said that he was present China While some study participants agreed to try to implant gene editing.
Rice said that he has no information about Dimm's involvement and the investigation is underway.
So far, most of the focus has been focused on regulatory spacing China.
US In the genomics law expert Rosario Iasci said, but it is not a complete story China At the University of Miami.
ISAસી said, "Let's focus on how it happened and why it happened and how it happened." "How can we establish a system in which transparency is good?"
There is no international organization to apply the bioethics rules, but scientific organizations and universities can use other tools.
Stanford law and genetic professor Hank Grilie said, "If someone breaks those rules, scientists can get upset, refuse to publish journals, employers can refuse to work, the funders can refuse to fund. "
Green expects education will have a severe impact in its experiment, even though the regulators act. "Universities will look tough about what is happening, this event will warn everyone about the related research."
Of course, sometimes a bad start can turn into a better late.
In 1980, the University of California, Los Angeles, Professor Martin Kline was allowed to do first gene therapy on two women in Israel and Italy because it did not get the permission to try UCLA.
Claire announced her work in publishing it in a scientific journal, and people were criticized for trying to "genetic engineering" on people when its safety and efficacy had not yet been established. Now there is a gene therapy established, though still fairly Novel, treatment method
Two years ago, in 1978, Dr. Robert Edwards was also condemned in the same manner when he announced the world's first "test tube baby" Louis Brown by the press. This work was later awarded to the Nobel Prize, and IFVA has helped millions to become a child.
And this year, Louise Brown – mother of two sons, conceived in an old fashion – to be 40.