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Author: John Bergeran, Robert Raiford Professor and Professor of Medicine, McGill University
During the first week of New Year, resolution often tries to learn new behaviors that improve health. We hope that old bad habits will disappear and new healthy habits will be automatically created.
But how does our brain learn new programs and are re-programmed to ensure retention?
In 1949, Canadian psychologist Donald Hab proposed the theory of the Hebrew learning how the learning process transforms into long-term memory. In this way, healthy habits retain automatically after their continuous repetition.
Learning and memory are the result of how our brain cells (neurons) interact with each other. When we know, neurons communicate through a nuclear transmission that produces memory circuits. Long term is known as power-station (LTP), the learning process is repeated more often, the transmission continues and a stronger memory circuit becomes more frequent. Neurons have this unique ability to create and strengthen synaptic connections through frequent activation that leads to the learning of the heliens.
Memory and hippocampus
To understand the brain, there is a need to check through various approaches and various features. The field of cognitive neuroscience was initially developed by a few pioneers. Their experimental designs and observations have led to the foundation for how today understands education and memory.
Donald Hab's contribution to McGill University is a driving force to illustrate memory. Under his supervision, neuropsychologist Brenda Milner studied the patient with unstable memory after lobectomy. More studies with Neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield make Milner able to study memory and learn from patients after brain surgeries.
When the success of Malner was removed from the hippocampus on both sides of the brain, there was a fracture while studying the patient. She noted that the patient can still learn new tasks but could not transfer them to long-term memory. In this way, the identity of the hippocampus was identified as the necessary place for the transfer of short-term memory, where long-term memory is studied in Hebrew.
In 2014, at the age of 95, at the age of 95, Milner won the Norwegian Cavel Award in Neuroscience for the important discovery in the hippocampus memory in 1957.
In 2014, the poet was awarded the Neuroscientist John O Café, who discovered that the hippocampus has set the cells to make cognitive maps, so that one can go from one place to another through our memory. Okeeffe also received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2014.
Often, neurotransmitter activation in the hippocampus leads to memory remembered by neurosentist Tim Bliss; For this research, Bliss received the Brain Prize of the London Book Foundation in 2016.
Taken together, Millner, Bliss and A & # 39; Café Heb founded its famous autonomous theory: "Neurons are wired together."
Memory in human animals
The main progress in non-human creatures teaches us about the method of memory that can be applied to mankind. Eric Kandel of Columbia University was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2000 for the sharp selection of sea snail (aphelsia) to understand herbian learning.
Candle produced specific evidence that memory is a consequence of repeated signs of neuron that responds to the learning process which will stimulate the production of ribonucleic acid (RNA). The final result was a new protein expression that enhances the synergistic connections.
The front leap went further to McGill when nuclear biologist Nahum Sønenberg opened a key mechanism that regulates memory formation in the hippocampus, hence the protein synthesis factor. This finding has shown that during the formation of memory, it is the initial factor in protein synthesis in the nucleon of the hippocampus that affects the reproduction needed for the generation of "wiring" of new synaptic connections.
Scientists working on the control of protein synthesis in Sonnenberg's work shook the world. Peter Walter, a nuclear biologist, was contacted by Sonenberg, one of the most famous in this area. Together, they identified the chemical compound called ISRIB, which would affect the initial reaction of the same protein synthesis detected by the Sonbenb.
After the administration of ISRiB, the results were amazing with a remarkable improvement in the memory of the mouse. Walter now broadens to include memory rehabilitation in a brain traumatic mouse.
Today, any progress has been made to investigate the memory disorders in humans – age-related memory loss, from dementia to Alzheimer's – at the epidemic level near the elderly. According to the World Health Organization estimates, 10 million patients are diagnosed with the sole dementia every year, with a total global total of 50 million.
John Bergeran Kathleen Dickson is credited as a co-author.
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