At the beginning of last year, an unknown Chinese researcher was featured in a special meeting in Berkeley, California, where scientists and policymakers discussed the technology that shook the industry to the ground: Emerging instruments to "edit" genes, DNA chains that make life patterns
Young scientist, She Jianqui, Seen the potential of this tool, which is called CRRSPRNot only genes, but also to transform your own career.
On visits to the United States, he attended the University of California, Jennifer Dowden of Berkeley University and Dr. Stanford University. Demand for the predecessor of CRISSP, such as Matthew Portus and the great thinkers about his use such as Stanford ethicologist, doctor. William Herbett
Last week, these scientists saw, wondered, because they had arranged an international conference that helped make the arrangement with a surprising statement: Which helped to create the first genetically educated childrenDespite the clear consensus of scientists, for now, no genetic changes should occur on future generations.
United States of Health of the Institute of Health of Director, Francis Collins said that it is an experiment "Chief Disaster" Acting "A scientist who apparently believed that he is a hero. In fact, he crossed both boundaries, both scientific and moral."
But how did someone stop it?
To be honest, scientists say that without considering the current laws or standards, there is no way to prevent anyone from playing with DNA. CRRSP is cheap and easy to useWhy scientists worry that some of this kind of technology was discovered almost soon.
And the researchers have a long history of science and medicine, which begins experiments with premature experiments that are rejected and frightened; some of which are similar to common methods, such as In vitro fertilization.
Gene editions are prohibited for reproduction in the United States and almost all of Europe. In China, there are ministerial standards that prohibit research with illusion that "violates moral or ethical principles."
But it turns out that it is not exactly reserved with its targets. He invented international experts at Stanford and Rice University, where he did graduate work before and during the study.
Have scientists been aware of your plan to comment on or oppose it? The answer is not clear.
Collins said, "It's not in the range of legal liability, but it moves in moral responsibility."
The National Health Commission, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of the Own itself said that they do not know what they are doing and since then they have condemned them.
However, three Stanford scientists – Hurlandt, Portus and his former adviser, Stephen Quack – had many contacts with them in recent years. He and other scientists knew or had strong doubts that he was trying to make genetically educated children.
Stanford did not respond to a request for a visit.
Quack, a bioengineering professor, was the first to know about his ambition. Each time his former student was in the city, he met with them and he told them a few years ago that the AIDS virus was interested in acquiring the fetus to make the children resistant, the professor said.
Herbert believes that he met him in early 2017, when he and CRRSPOR co-inventor Dodna had their first three meetings with leading scientists and policymakers to conduct a technical discussion.
Since then, he has returned to Stanford many times, and Hurlaut said he "spent hours" in which he talked about the conditions in which gene editing would be appropriate.
Portus said that he knew that he had talked to Harbodou and believed that Harbala had disappointed the Chinese scientist. In February, he asked to meet Portus and told him that he got permission from a moral board of a hospital to proceed.
"I think I'm hoping it to be more acceptable and I was very negative," said Portus. "They were upset by their morals, they were frustrated by their impureness."
Michael Diem, a professor of bioengineering at Rice University and advisor to Hey Doctoral Thesis, said that since the scientists returned to China around 2012, they work with those who are on board and have a "small stake". Shenzhen's two genetic companies. Demy had defended his actions that the research team had used previous experiments on animals.
"We have many generations of animals that have been genetically edited and they have potential offspring," and many researches have been done on the other side of the genes, "Dam said. He added that he was present in China while some study participants agreed to try to acquire gene in the embryo.
There is no international organization for the control of bioreactal rules, And scientific institutions and universities can use other tools.
"If someone breaks those rules, Scientists can differentiate youStanford law and genetic professor Hank Grilie said, "Magazines refuse to publish, employ employees, financiers for money."
Of course, sometimes it starts well, it ends well.
In 1978, Dr. When Robert Edwards announced the press, the first "Test Tube Baby"The world, Louise Brown.
His work later became worthy of it Millions of people have been helped in the Nobel Prize and Vitro Fertility.
And this year, Louise Brown – the mother of two children had an old-fashioned idea – 40 years old.