Workers' tragedy was great in the 19th century. Otto von Bismarck amended with social law. Their "revolution from above" continues till today. And need improvement.
In 1883, Otto von Bismarck literally sees black for Germany. Chancellor said, "Those who have, do not work, they only work hard." "And they will eat us." To date, it is not clear whether the powerful man Bismarck was really afraid of socialist revolution in Germany. Or whether he has supported this trend of liberals and conservatives by calculating politics.
At that time social imbalances in Germany were always a matter of concern. Millions of workers work under strict conditions. Hunger wages were generally low, but there was a high risk of accident on an accident or disability of work. Professional health and safety did not exist virtually, while working days lasted 14 hours. Life expectancy for men was 34 in 1865, in women it was 37 years. On average, mainly due to the majority of workers and workers, who live in large numbers below the lifeless level.
Nationwide social network? None. Poor relief was for a better reason.
"All the wheels are stable"
This misuse was known for Otto von Bismarck. Especially because he has strengthened the SPD with growing concerns over the years, then it is called Social Workers Party of Germany (SAP). The fact is that more and more representatives of the working class were awake about their power, but this old war song of 1863 shows the song:
"The man of the work wakes up
And recognize your power!
All the wheels are frozen,
If your strong arm wants it! "
An organized work force that stressed on improving their status? Or even organized a strike and rebellion? Bismarck wants to stop it at any cost.
In 1878, the Socialist Law came into force shortly after the dangerous attacks of social democracy. "I have identified the enemy in social-democratic elements". Chancellor claimed. To give strength to the necessary fear of SAP, Bismarck Kaiser Wilhelm Eye. The previous attempted murder attempt was made. However, SAPA was not guilty. However, socialist organizations and pamphlets were clearly restricted.
First whip, then carrots
In addition to "whip" in the form of a Socistist Law Bismarck, "carrots" is also to be used. On November 17, 1881, Bismarck read "the Royal Embassy". By doing so, he declared the name of the king, "The treatment of social harm will not be limited to suppressing the social-democracy exaggeration, but equally will not be limited to promoting the welfare of the workers."
After this flowering words Bismarck finally became more solid and announced three columns of emerging welfare state: health insurance, accident insurance and insurance for old age and disability. Considering the state's commitment to state employees, Bismark hoped to win fidelity. And to weaken SAP
The so-called Iron Chancellor did not make any secret of his motives: "I believe that working classes should be conquered, or I should be bribed, the state should look as a social organization that insists on it and cares for its welfare."
Welfare state with controls
The first step was held on 1 December 1884. On this day "Workers' Health Insurance Act" was implemented. For 13 weeks the compulsory insurer has benefited from the illness, the cost of medicines and medical treatment has been taken. Employees had to pay two-thirds of the contributions, while employers took the third position. At least 4.7 million employees benefited from basic safety.
In the summer of 1884, the Reichstag passed the Accident Insurance Act, but still must wait "the law on workers' retirement and retirement savings". On May 24, 1889, the parliament had not passed.
"Accident in Machine Factory": Bradville's inability to deal with the destruction of the working class family. (Source: Johan Bahar / Ulystein Build)
By these three laws, Bismarck gave justice to the modern welfare state, which still left the obscure distance. For example, thresholds were initially designed in such a way that many employees are not related to the insurer's circle by law. In addition, the legislative health insurance in particular was subject to defects.
However, health insurance companies have given disability benefits to disabled members of 50 percent of their earnings. However, a maximum of two marks per day is limited. Lower the minimum wages in the workers' budget. Only the benefits were raised over time; And expanded the insurer's circle. After all, more than 15 million people were already in the last year of World War I.
A column very little
Basic insurance in Bismarck's social law was also missing: unemployment insurance. It was founded on July 16, 1927 in Weimar Republic. In 1929, millions of people in Germany were unemployed shortly after the world's economic crisis.
Like today, Bismarck's pension insurance was a special bone of contention. Critics testified to him as "state socialism" because the Reich budget was part of the pension fund. At that time, the state pension was only understood as a subsidy for the residence.
The royal embassy of 17.11.1881, who started the creation of Kalyan kingdom. (Source: Ulysteine Build)
For the sole or primary source of income for pensioners, the following decades of insurance changed: Under 1957 Chancellor Conrad Adnanaur. Since then, it is based on the fact that many small employees lend a small number of pensioners through their contributions.
And that system also reaches its limits on the changes in the working world and the face of demographic change in our present time. Statutory pension insurance is therefore required to be accepted in future social situations.
As Otto von Bismarck had to do. Their social law has been shown to look forward, but social democracy has no meaning. When the Socialist Act ended in 1890, the SPD became the strongest party in the next Reichstag election.