"Do you like cakes or broccoli?" If you ask a child under the age of 3 years, then 8 times out of 10 will be broccoli.
But encouraging parents to successfully promote healthy food choices is less in order to introduce choices. University of California, published in a study conducted by Irvine and in an online journal Plot One It has been found that when faced with "or" questions, toddlers are subject to "resin bayas": they prefer the last option, even though it is not exactly what they want.
"Adults are able to differentiate between choices and are often more likely to choose the first. This is called preference bias," said Emily Sumner, the leading author of the study, "UCI Doctor's Candidate in Cognitive Sciences. "But children, especially children under the age of 3 who do not know the language well, show the occasional liens when answering questions, which means that the last choice presented is more often selected. Children are not studied, so this is interesting for pinpoint. "
Researchers asked 24 toddlers between 21 and 27 months of 20 questions in which they had to choose between option 1 and option 2. Then they asked again questions with alternatives in previous disputes. After every reply, the children were given a sticker featuring their preference. If they did not say what they wanted, then the two stickers were shown when the question was asked, and they pointed to their choice.
When Toddlers responded with a heart, they chose the last option of 85.2% of the time. While pointing at the point of speaking, they chose the last option of the last 51.6% time. According to Sumner, this difference is related to the development of children's functional memory, which is related to immediate conscious assumptions and linguistic processes, called phonological loop.
"When a child points, they can see the options and choose their actual choices," she explains. "When they do not have any visual references and only listen & # 39; or, they can catch the most recent option based on the phonological loop. Children can understand how to speak, but Words do not necessarily mean. So when speaking, they are just pulling back the recently selected selection. "
Researchers reviewed the child-language data exchange system, which is a computerized database of transcribed conversations between parents and their children, to determine the same bias in real-world interactions. They analyzed 534 "or" questions and found that the chances of giving the answer to the second option after the children became obsolete. 64% of those people were selected at the age of 2, while 3- and 4-year-old people chose another option of 50% time. This suggests that resency bias is present at the age of 3.
Working schedules such as age and word length, drive rescency bias, to determine if additional experiments were conducted with 24 preschoolers. Children were named toy cartoon characters, including syllable counting-stig or mib, for example, or hutamavar or heikodesi, including two differences of words.
Researchers have found that most of the preschoolers were fit to display a reception bias during the entire process. More results show that with most children, more syllables of words, acute frequency bias This indicates that when employed memory is blocked, older children also return to more resident bias.
"Our study shows the importance of small children to swap the order of options to ask about their choices, because they do not always know what they say," said Sumner. "For experimental psychologists, research methods that require verbal responses should be carefully unbalanced. However, parents who use toddlers like cakes or broccoli may ask such a biased design."
Want to expand your toddler vocabulary? Find another child
Emily Sumner et al. Cake or broccoli? Rescency precludes children's verbal responses, Plot One (2019). DOI: 10.1371 / journal. Pone.0217207
If asked properly, toddlers will pick broccoli over the cake, find the study (2019, June 13)
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