Friday , August 19 2022

Black Flu – New Zealand's worst public health disaster



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New Zealand's worst public health disaster, over 9,000 deaths in eight weeks During the 1918-19 period, the "Spanish Flue", which was spread throughout the world, killed 50 million people and affected hundreds of people. It lasted three times before World War I, for four years.

In Europe, the pandemic was brought to New Zealand by soldiers returning from the war, particularly the Trentham (77), and Fredston (3220 cases and 177 deaths). Returning home they spread all over the country.

Many victims, like black death squads in the 14th century, rode black. Death occurs within a day of sickness, usually 5-10 days. When thousands of people were in homes or temporary hospitals, cities and towns had Vishnu towns. The publication and tang were banned in an effort to combat infection. Half New Zealand seized the population.

In Wellington only 730 people were killed. 660 were hidden in the Karori cemetery. The worst day of November 18 was 63 people.

Read more:
* Black November & # 39; Gillipole is a reminder
A bigger tolerance for the Spanish tuna
* Pandemic increases

Ironically, the cause of Germany's defeat ultimately led to the end of the swine war. Won Lundendorf's last attack was defeated in 1918. Germany called it Blitzkart. The confederates also seized it, but had more resources.

This was not a "Spanish" flu. It did not begin in Spain, nor was it the worst affected country. But the King of Spain, Alfonso, was suffering from a pandemic headache in May. The body was recovered. But the disease was widely reported. Soon epidemic had a name.

Nayagra, which brought the swine for the New Jersey. Previous epidemics occurred in October 1918 in Auckland.

Distributed

Nayagra, which brought the swine for the New Jersey. Previous epidemics occurred in October 1918 in Auckland.

It was first taken by US soldiers in Europe in 1918. Historians believe that they initially believed the soldiers recovering from pigs and chickens. An analysis of the pandemic's A / H1N1 virus is the closest relative of the swine flu. The first wandering pandemic waves in the Midwest and Europe.

Between May and August, many people were killed. However, in September and October, the second wave of the north and south poles became the worst. This was not a previously influenza pandemic known to you.

Some soldiers survived the war fears of injury, or because the war ended. The grandfather came back to find a parent or sibling, my uncle or cousin, now dead. This is not a happy house they expected.

New Zealand's arrival was attended by Prime Minister William Macy and Sir Joseph Ward. In September 1918 he met Imperial War Cabinet from London, when the Finance minister was present. The vessel was in Nairoa on a ship in Niagara, where the captain of the health department was in Oakland. He repeatedly spoke of "Spanish influenza" cases, and the need for 25 seriously injured was needed.

The infectious antipyretic spray, which contains the disinfectant. Dozens were used throughout the country, but it was unusable. Christchurch had the most effective system. People traveled with the air-sprayer controlled by 14 controlled tramors.

G. Wi-rice

The infectious antipyretic spray, which contains the disinfectant. Dozens were used throughout the country, but it was unusable. Christchurch had the most effective system. People traveled with the air-sprayer controlled by 14 controlled tramors.

However, this disease is common in New Zealand. The ship which arrived in October did not take control of the vessel. In addition, most passengers and rescue workers have been found. Only two were symptoms of pneumonia (which resulted in the death of pandemics). Both of them later died, and a passenger died. However, after the namña before the nose, Duck died in Oakland by another man.

In October, much of the possibility of new infections was in Auckland for many soldiers from England. Hundreds of soldiers were more dangerous than the second wave. A ship had 80 "serious" cases before arriving.

The first wavelength of this new wavelength was Auckland. In the last days of October, it seemed to be "broken" throughout the city. Public services are knocked down by more disabilities.

Many victims suffered from pneumonia. Someone has lost all hair. Nose-bleeds and delicacies were common. The difficulties were sudden, quick, and helpful. All the families came down there. Some people died within a day.

The survivors sometimes took a few weeks to improve weeks, and some never completely recovered. In poor dwelling, particularly in Wellington and Auckland, the disease worsened.

Usually buried within 24 hours.

The Fluid Medicines were distributed at the Medicin Depot in Christchurch Cathedral Square. Due to the vigorous activities of the Helbert Chesson District Health Officer, the mortality rate is much lower than many centers in Christchurch.

Neil Macbeth

The Fluid Medicines were distributed at the Medicin Depot in Christchurch Cathedral Square. Due to the vigorous activities of the Helbert Chesson District Health Officer, the mortality rate is much lower than many centers in Christchurch.

Wellington's last death toll was 730, or eight deaths per 1000 is slightly higher than Auckland. In Christchurch, 458 people died and $ 4.9 for 1000 people. In Auckland, 1163 people were injured in the floods and 14863 people were injured.

Wellington's initial response was delayed, dictatorship, lack of chief officers and lack of emergency. On the contrary, Christchurch's energy district health officer Herbert Chesson took steps to prevent the coming epidemic and not wait for the health department's instructions.

He met Mayor Henry Holand, city head and sanitation inspector in the city to recommend the city's General Clean-Up and Discipline. He asked for legal action against the tunneling of the public. When Wellington was still discussing whether schools should close, Crescent ordered them to be closed in Christchurch. Also, theaters and entertainment centers, days before any official suggestions. He asked the chemists at Christchurch to open their hours.

The health department found that half of the people affected New Zealand. 90% of the adults in lower cities such as Inglawood, Tamouryui, Taheappe, and Nightcaps have also been at lower mortality rates.

In November 1918, Torne was affected by fever. Most of the islands got sick. One-fifth of the population- 8500 people have died.

Distributed

In November 1918, Torne was affected by fever. Most of the islands got sick. One-fifth of the population- 8500 people have died.

Deaths in Maori are very high. New Zealand's professor Jeffrey Rice says of the disease: "Maori is seven times higher than the Europeans from the injured.

Since Maori deaths are not registered, it is difficult to get accurate estimates. Some tribes refused that their tribal people died as part of the protests against warfare.

The epidemic was a serious test of Maoari-Paiqah relations. "Various responses from indifference to mutual concerns, and generally only revealed on the surface, were racial concerns and disputes," says Rice.

"Maori migration help to give Health Department has received a great effort, not marginalized in the army, doctors, medical students and neighbors of the ettikkukayanenkil the injured areas, mavearikk ignore Pakistan. However, it is temporary and can be dangerous manappurvvattekkalum . "

In mid-November 1918, the number of daily sick people in Wellington increased rapidly.

Bubara Mulliyan

In mid-November 1918, the number of daily sick people in Wellington increased rapidly.

In Australia, there is a very low mortality rate. Withdrawing more than 300 ships, 80,000 passengers and three employees were strategically stopped. Although this escaped from the second wavelength of the epidemic, the Minor wavelength in 1919 was faced with. Its final mortality rate was 14,000. It was 2.3 per 1000 people worldwide.

The Polynesian population was hazardous: 1000 deaths per 1,000 in Fiji, 160 in 1000, and from 220 in 1000 in Western Samoa under New Zealand.

Most of the people in Western Samoa are infected, with 8500 deaths per fifth. In neighboring American Samoa, there was no bird flu killed because it strictly seaized.

In November 1918, New Zealand captured the forces of Western Samoa's German army. In the island of Fijah in November 1918, the island was under military control. Six pig brakes were admitted to the Affordable Port Officer in Auckland, and a large number of passengers were admitted to Auckland. In a few days, two people died. After a week, the flu was spreading with "cool radiation".

There was a big famine in Western Samoa the following year. A study by John Ryan McLean, a research team linked to Ministry of External Affairs and Commerce's Ministry of Health, has found that Samoan preliminary population may be one-third of the population. The Witnesses are reminded of objects lying on the side of the roads and deeply moved into the pit. The reefs in the western Samoa are still sacred places.

* Most black flu based on 1918. The worst public health disaster in New Zealand, Jeffrey W. Rice wrote.

Emergency ambulances work with the Wellington Town Hall during the Flu Epidemic 1918. Wellington authorities did not respond to the disease, the city experienced high death rates.

Alexander Turbal Library, Ref: PAColl-7489-69

Emergency ambulances work with the Wellington Town Hall during the Flu Epidemic 1918. Wellington authorities did not respond to the disease, the city experienced high death rates.

'മരിച്ചവരുടെ എണ്ണം നാം നഷ്ടപ്പെടുത്തുന്നു'

വെല്ലിങ്ടൺ ആബേൽ സ്റ്റ് സ്ട്രീറ്റിലെ താത്കാലിക ആശുപത്രിയിൽ സഹായിക്കാനായി എൻ എസ് ആർ ആർമി മെഡിക്കൽ കോർപിൽ അൽഫ്രഡ് ഹോളോസ് ഒരു വൈദ്യപരിശീലനായിരുന്നു. 1972 ൽ അദ്ദേഹം ഓർമപ്പെടുത്തി:

"പകർച്ചവ്യാധിയുടെ ഉയരത്തിൽ ഞങ്ങൾക്ക് 60 കളിൽ പുരുഷൻമാരുടെ വാർഡിൽ നാല് ഓർഡറുകൾ നൽകി, 30 വനിതാ വാർഡുകളിൽ മൂന്നു വാഡകളുൾപ്പെടെ (വൊളണ്ടറി എയ്ഡ് ഡിവിഷൻമെന്റിലെ ചെറുപ്പക്കാരികൾ) … ഞങ്ങൾക്ക് ഒരു അര മണിക്കൂർ ചാർട്ട് ഉയർന്ന പരുക്കുകൾ, താപനില, പൾസ് എന്നിവയും എടുത്തുപറഞ്ഞതും സൂചിപ്പിച്ചതും, പക്ഷേ മിക്കപ്പോഴും ഇത് സ്പോഞ്ച്, സ്പോഞ്ച്, സ്പോഞ്ച് എന്നിവയാണ്.

"ആസ്പിരിൻ, ഡിജിറ്റൽസ് ആൻഡ് മോഫിയ എന്നിവ മാത്രമായിരുന്നു ഞങ്ങളുടെ ഒരേയൊരു മരുന്നുകൾ.ഒരുപാട് കേസുകൾ പ്രതികരിക്കുകയും ഒരു ആഴ്ചയിൽ ഡിസ്ചാർജ് ചെയ്യാൻ തയ്യാറായെങ്കിലും ക്രമേണ കോമയിൽ പ്രവേശിക്കുകയും സാധാരണയായി അഞ്ചു മുതൽ പത്ത് ദിവസത്തിനുള്ളിൽ മരണപ്പെടുകയും ചെയ്തു. കുറച്ചുപേർക്ക് ഹെമറോർജുകൾ ഉണ്ടായിരുന്നു.

"ഒരു ദിവസം മുതൽ അടുത്ത ദിവസം വരെ മരിച്ചവരുടെ എണ്ണം നഷ്ടമായി എന്നതിനാൽ ഞങ്ങൾ തിരക്കിലായിരുന്നു, പക്ഷേ ഇടയ്ക്കിടെ ഒരു ബ്രെറ്റർ എടുത്തു ചെറിയ ഒരു നടപ്പാതയിലേക്ക് പുറത്തെടുത്തു, വെല്ലിംഗ്ടൺ നഗരത്തിന്റെ നടുവിലുള്ള ഒരു ആഴ്ചയിൽ ഞാൻ നിൽക്കുന്നു എന്ന് എനിക്ക് പറയാൻ കഴിയും മൃതദേഹം കാണാതാവുകയോ, കടകളോ തുറന്നിരിക്കുകയോ, ട്രാഫുകൾ ഒന്നും തുറന്നിട്ടില്ലാതിരുന്നിട്ടും, ഒരേ ട്രാഫിക് ഒരു വെളുത്ത ഷീറ്റിനൊപ്പം വാൻ ഒരു വലിയ വെങ്കലം കൊണ്ട് വയ്ക്കുകയും ആംബുലൻസ് അല്ലെങ്കിൽ കേൾവിക്കാരനായി സേവിക്കുകയും ചെയ്തു. അത് മരിച്ചവരുടെ നഗരം ആയിരുന്നു. "

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